RDSS is a real-time ROS detection system in the sputum sample that detects Reactive Oxygen Species of respiratory and inflammatory cells (pulmonary inflammation detection system) using an electrochemical sensor containing a nanostructured ROS-sensitive material.

Other groups and we showed that there is an increased level of ROS in COVID-19 patients. Three types of ROS increments were observed in COVID-19 patients: First, mitochondrial ROS in host lung cells due to replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus in lung cells and hyper-metabolism of lung cells to assist virus replication. Second, NLRP3 inflammasome based ROS production as cytotoxic ROS to destroy the virus replication. These two intra-cellular ROS increments would affect cell metabolism and the cell reflexes to balance intracellular and extracellular ROS. Hence, we can observe an increase in the ROS level in the sputum sample in primary states of patients’ COVID-19 involvement. Finally, in higher stages of the disease, after the cytokine storm and an increased storm of IL-6, we will observe the attack of neutrophils and macrophages to lung organ, and they attack both virus-host lung cells and normal lung cells by producing cytotoxic Reactive Oxygen Species. Such increased ROS levels would induce damage to lung epithelial. As a result, we can observe an increased ROS level in the sputum sample of COVID-19 patients in higher and severe levels. So, there is a good correlation between COVID-19 severity in patients and the electrochemical response of the RDSS system. The RDSS system’s impact is identifying respiratory inflammatory signatures in the sputum sample of a patient. Apart from being COVID-19 or another acute inflammatory disease, it is important to find such patients and order anti-ROS and anti-inflammatory drugs for them. As you know, WHO and AAFA have ordered to control the asthmatic and allergic patients during the corona pandemic. We know that most of the drugs in the guideline of Covid-19 patients are similar to acute inflammatory diseases such as ROS scavengers and N-acetylcysteine or other corticosteroids such as dexamethasone and other pain killer drugs and some antibiotics.